Pakatan Harapan must not rest on its laurels

Pakatan Harapan’s Mahathir Mohamad (R) addresses a press conference after the general election, in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, on May 9, 2018.

Pakatan Harapan’s Mahathir Mohamad (R) addresses a press conference after the general election, in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, on May 9, 2018. Photo: Reuters

In May 2018, the ASEAN region was riveted by the election results in Malaysia, where the Barisan Nasional coalition which had ruled Malaysia for over six decades was toppled in a stunning upset by Pakatan Harapan. If you are a Singaporean student, you should clue yourself in to the politics of our nearest neighbour. Besides the fact that their politics affects us, there is also always a fascinating comparison between Singapore and Malaysia: socially, politically, economically, food, there are so many parallels between the two countries. Same same, but different as they say. I think of Singapore and Malaysia as distorted mirror images of each other.

Even if you are not Singaporean, the politics of Malaysia holds some interesting and important lessons for you.

Below is a commentary written by my friend Maa Zhi Hong. He is a remarkable young Singaporean. At the age of only 21, and never having attended junior college or taken the subject of General Paper (he is a polytechnic grad), his knowledge and understanding of world affairs equals or surpasses even the best of the GP students I taught over 14 years.  He needed no one to tell him to read newspapers, websites or books. He devours them with an appetite that I think I myself was able to match only as a 10 year old bookworm.

I can say without hesitation that his grasp of world affairs and ability to tie together disparate elements of society, economics, politics, history and more into a coherent analysis exceeds 90 percent or more of the university graduates I know. And he has not stepped into either junior college or university. Nor does he intend to. His plan is to invest his time and money into learning from what he calls the University of Life (“you never graduate from that,” he says), chalking up real world experience and accomplishments in areas such as writing, speaking and business. At the tender age of 21, he has already been engaged by the prestigious Asia Times as a contributor and had seven articles published in less than a month.

Knowing him has been a humbling experience for me, and I trust reading his work and knowing about him will be for many of you JC students and uni grads out there as well. Much to ponder and reflect on, and we can only grow stronger and more vibrant if we set aside our ego to learn from anyone regardless of their background.

Zhi Hong and myself at a farm in the Philippines

Zhi Hong and myself at a farm in the Philippines

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By Maa Zhi Hong, Asia Times
May 6, 2019

On the night of May 9, 2018, Malaysians of all political affiliations could not believe their eyes as they processed the election results coming in after polling had ended. After all, Prime Minister Najib Razak had done his best to stack the deck in his favor; he gerrymandered the electoral system to give heavier weight to rural Malaysia, which had backed his coalition in the 2013 general election.

In the end, all of this came to naught.

One by one, many senior Barisan Nasional (BN) ministers lost their seats to the opposition.

Read the full article at Asia Times.
For more articles by Maa Zhi Hong.
Maa Zhi Hong’s official Instagram account is @maazhihongofficial

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Website owner Steven Ooi, a First Class Honours grad from the National University of Singapore, retired from a distinguished 14-year career as a GP and English tutor in 2016. He continues to blog on issues of concern to General Paper and student life.

To view tutors recommended by him, click here.

GP model essays here.

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To those starting JC life in today’s Singapore

jc singapore

[Writer’s note: While this article is addressed specifically to Singapore-based students, it may hold some truth for students in many other places as well.]

Dear young friend,

I’m writing this to share some thoughts that I used to convey to every one of my students when I was still a full-time tutor in Singapore (I retired in 2016). It is just my personal opinion, formed through years of experience as a student in the 1980s and 1990s, then as a tutor in the 2000s and 2010s.

Observing student life in the 90s and then in the 2010s, I can only conclude that the school system in Singapore has become 10 times more competitive than during my time. At least 10 times. During the 90s, most of my junior college classmates didn’t even attend private tuition. We could hang out at the bowling alley, the arcade or the hawker centre most days after school and still do well enough in the A-levels to qualify for the top local universities. (For some perspective: the requirements to get an interview at NUS law school in 1992 were B, B and C for the equivalent of today’s H2 subjects and a B3 for GP under the old grading system. Today you need straight As or very close to that.) We had no Project Work subject, nor was there a need to take a fourth content-based, ‘contrasting’ subject. I took only English literature, Economics and Geography as my content-based subjects, plus General Paper. That’s it. (I had already passed Higher Chinese in my secondary days, so there was no need to take Chinese anymore.)

Thus we not only had lighter curriculum loads, and needed lower grades to qualify for good universities and courses, but it was also easier to score a certain grade then than now. It was easier to score an A/B then than to score an A/B now. We did not have the education arms race then that we do now. Exams were easier (it seems to be an unspoken rule in Singapore that exams have to be made tougher every year. I’m not sure that this is a healthy approach, nor does it necessarily lead to better outcomes for students in the real world.) Oh, and CCAs were only ECAs (extracurricular activities) then, and generally less demanding.

Let me cut to the chase here. If you are attending JC in Singapore now, you are young and probably foolish, as I was in 1991. It’s a beautiful thing to be young and foolish. Life is confusing. You don’t know who you are and how to behave in many social situations. But you are full of energy and wild ideas, and you will make many colourful mistakes while having many memorable experiences.

Problem is, today’s Singapore doesn’t really give young people much leeway to be young and foolish anymore. There is so little margin for error.

If you are not fully focused on your studies, you will find yourself underwater very quickly and end up with an A-level result that gives you few options.

If you are preoccupied with crushes and boy-girl relationships; addicted to online games and social media; struggling with depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, insecurity or any other psychological problems; troubled by problems in your family; or just plain immature or indisciplined, you will find yourself miles and miles off the pace very quickly in today’s Singapore JC. Every day will be a bigger struggle.

It is especially hard on the boys, as they are often not permitted to repeat their A-levels as a school candidate if they do badly. They have to take the exam again as a private candidate while dealing with the rigours of National Service. I have tutored boys in this situation and I can assure you it is no. bloody. joke.

The personal issues I mentioned two paragraphs ago are very difficult to grapple with, and they often take time to resolve. But I encourage you to face them squarely, as acknowledging the problem is the crucial first step to solving it. If you have a gaming addiction, face it. If you have a psychological difficulty, face it (and seek a good listening ear, like a teacher or counsellor). If you don’t even know why you are in JC, then you’d better take a good hard look in the mirror and ask yourself what you are doing with these precious months and years of your life. What do you want in your life long term, and are your actions congruent with your goals and wishes?

And as for romantic relationships, I totally understand how strong the attraction to another person can be. Personally, I was from the monastery (two different boys’ schools) for ten years prior to JC, so being around girls for the first time at the age of 17 was – well, a pretty overwhelming distraction.

Facing rejection from the opposite sex, too, can be very painful and make you unable to concentrate on your lectures for a week. Let’s not get started on lovers’ quarrels and breakups…

I shan’t proclaim any general commandment on whether JC students should or should not get into ‘steady’ relationships. I will only try to state a few, quite indisputable facts for you to ponder.

  1. Teenagers are at an age where attraction to another person is at its strongest (raging hormones!); but maturity is at its weakest.
  2. At the age of 17 or 18, you are still in the process of discovering yourself, who you are and what you want in life. And it’s a very long process.
  3. Romantic relationships involve very intense emotions and complex situations that are very hard to handle even for grown men and women.

With all these in mind, I suggest you think long and hard about whether you want to “go steady”. Some of you might be ready for it, and many are not. And if you don’t feel completely ready, it is not wise to get into it. It is lovely to get to know the opposite sex as friends, without any pressure of going further. Don’t pressure yourself, and don’t allow yourself to be pressured. You are not a lesser being because you don’t have a boyfriend or girlfriend.

You are also not a lesser being because you got rejected.

Respect yourself, despite all your flaws. If your name is Sam, say things like, “I like this person Sam even though he/she is not perfect. He/she is loyal to his/her friends. He/she has fighting spirit. He/she has charming crooked teeth.” I learned this technique from Senait Mehari, an extraordinary lady from Eritrea who was forced to become a child soldier but later became a successful musician in Germany. She said it’s good to refer to yourself in the third person because thinking in the first person means that you follow your thoughts blindly; “if we consider ourselves in the third person, we see a great deal more” (from her powerful book Heart of Fire).

And back to what I said earlier, do bear in mind the cruel and unforgiving reality of JC life in Singapore today. Is it worth putting your studies at risk and creating huge problems for yourself in the future, for the sake of pursuing this relationship now? What are the chances that this relationship will work out five, ten, fifteen years from now? (I have seen some JC sweethearts end up getting married – but not many.) Will you meet other people you fall in love with later? Almost definitely, yes!

May I wish you every success in your JC life and beyond. I hope you face your problems courageously and constructively, and come up with a plan to deal with them day by day so that you will be able to make the most of your JC life. Have goals, short and long term, small and big, so that you are not drifting nowhere during these precious years of your life.

Enjoy being young and foolish sometimes, but stay focused and seek a little wisdom every day.

Best wishes,

Steven Ooi

P.S. I welcome your comments on this page, or by email at stevenooi18 @ yahoo.com (remove the spaces).

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Website owner Steven Ooi, a First Class Honours grad from the National University of Singapore, retired from a distinguished 14-year career as a GP and English tutor in 2016. He continues to blog on issues of concern to General Paper and student life.

To view tutors recommended by him, click here.

GP model essays here.

GP or English tutors (including part-timers) keen to be listed on this website (consistently ranked top 10 on Google) as a Recommended Tutor, please email stevenooi18 @ yahoo.com (remove the spaces). Tutors in other subjects interested in having links to their website are also welcome to contact him.

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The War on Huawei

huawei 01

This hard-hitting commentary by the director of Columbia University’s Center for Sustainable Development and the UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network, Prof Jeffrey D. Sachs, has caused a real stir. It sheds substantial light on one of the most important developments of our times – the growing strategic and geopolitical rivarly between the incumbent superpower, the United States, and the rising challenger China. If you have not read about the Thucydides Trap, please do so.

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By JEFFREY D. SACHS
Published on Project Syndicate

The Trump administration’s conflict with China has little to do with US external imbalances, closed Chinese markets, or even China’s alleged theft of intellectual property. It has everything to do with containing China by limiting its access to foreign markets, advanced technologies, global banking services, and perhaps even US universities.

NEW YORK – The arrest of Huawei CFO Meng Wanzhou is a dangerous move by US President Donald Trump’s administration in its intensifying conflict with China. If, as Mark Twain reputedly said, history often rhymes, our era increasingly recalls the period preceding 1914. As with Europe’s great powers back then, the United States, led by an administration intent on asserting America’s dominance over China, is pushing the world toward disaster.

The context of the arrest matters enormously. The US requested that Canada arrest Meng in the Vancouver airport en route to Mexico from Hong Kong, and then extradite her to the US. Such a move is almost a US declaration of war on China’s business community. Nearly unprecedented, it puts American businesspeople traveling abroad at much greater risk of such actions by other countries.

The US rarely arrests senior businesspeople, US or foreign, for alleged crimes committed by their companies. Corporate managers are usually arrested for their alleged personal crimes (such as embezzlement, bribery, or violence) rather than their company’s alleged malfeasance. Yes, corporate managers should be held to account for their company’s malfeasance, up to and including criminal charges; but to start this practice with a leading Chinese businessperson, rather than the dozens of culpable US CEOs and CFOs, is a stunning provocation to the Chinese government, business community, and public.

Read more here.

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Website owner Steven Ooi, a First Class Honours grad from the National University of Singapore, retired from a distinguished 14-year career as a GP and English tutor in 2016. He continues to blog on issues of concern to General Paper and student life.

To view tutors recommended by him, click here.

GP model essays here.

GP or English tutors (including part-timers) keen to be listed on this website (consistently ranked top 10 on Google) as a Recommended Tutor, please email stevenooi18 @ yahoo.com (remove the spaces). Tutors in other subjects interested in having links to their website are also welcome to contact him.

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Ex-schoolteacher & RI alumna’s post illuminates the consequences of S’porean “meritocracy”

Singapore 01

Photo: Mothership.SG

For this former teacher, studying at an elite school and teaching at a neighbourhood school made her realise just how problematic the message of meritocracy was.

By Matthias Ang, Mothership
October 4, 2018

Earlier this week, a video from CNA Insider on class differences, partly from the angle of education in Singapore, has garnered strong reactions and discussions about the issue among Singaporeans.

In particular, an emotional moment from the clip, extracted from a longer documentary, featured a boy studying in the Normal (Technical) stream who said he was afraid teachers in a mixed-stream class “would not teach” him because he is “very slow”:

Ex-teacher speaks up

Subsequently on Wednesday, Oct. 3, a former secondary school teacher by the name of Chew Wei Shan (who also happens to be a local musician going by the name weish) took to Facebook to share her take on the issue.

In her post, Chew pointed out that the video “only scratches the surface” and shared the severe dissonance she experienced from being a student at Raffles Institution to teaching at a neighbourhood secondary school.

These years spent at the two different educational environments, she writes, allowed Chew to see the effects of propagating meritocracy throughout schools “as gospel truth”.

It is a message that, from where she is standing, has resulted in serious consequences that, she says, have affected children’s lives.

Read more here.

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Website owner Steven Ooi, a First Class Honours grad from the National University of Singapore, retired from a distinguished 14-year career as a GP and English tutor in 2016. He continues to blog on issues of concern to General Paper and student life.

To view tutors recommended by him, click here.

GP model essays here.

GP or English tutors (including part-timers) keen to be listed on this website (consistently ranked top 10 on Google) as a Recommended Tutor, please email stevenooi18 @ yahoo.com (remove the spaces). Tutors in other subjects interested in having links to their website are also welcome to contact him.

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Is regulation of the press desirable? (N17 A-levels)

[Dear readers, I have chosen not to charge for access to my essays and articles so that they are available to all. I have chosen instead to generate some revenue through advertising. As such may I kindly request that you turn off ad blockers on your browser. Many thanks.]

By Steven Ooi, retired GP tutor

In the last two decades or so, the growing reach of the Internet and exponential growth in related mobile communications technology have brought seismic changes to the way in which information is disseminated and views exchanged. News generation has become decentralised – once newspapers, TV and radio stations fed the news to their consumers, but now anyone can be a journalist by writing or posting videos on his blog or social media account. Thus in the current context, it is my view that the only meaningful definition of “the press” would be all forms of media old and new seen as a collective whole. Today social media often has greater influence over the public than traditional media, and so any discussion of the regulation of information cannot exclude social media. For this essay, desirability shall be defined in terms of both positive practical outcomes and ethical considerations. I hold the position that the control of the press by means of rules or restrictions is desirable only insofar as it provides a reasonable balance between conflicting human rights and aspects of the public interest, and only if regulation is carried out by truly independent entities.

Mandela on the press

At times journalists and media outlets, in their zeal to obtain information and gain an edge over their competitors, carry out actions that are illegal, unethical or both. This can lead to the violation of the rights of individuals and lower the moral character of a society. A prominent example is the phone-hacking scandal that brought down British tabloid The News of the World in 2011. Reporters from the paper were found to have hacked the phones of celebrities, politicians and members of the British royal family. What shocked the country and world even more was the revelation that the newspaper had even intruded into the phones of murdered schoolgirl Milly Dowler and victims of the 7 July 2005 terror attacks on the London Underground train network. The freedom of the press cannot be allowed to extend so far that it eviscerates the fundamental right of individuals to privacy, which is also integral to a person’s dignity. For a society to enjoy dignity and happiness, a reasonable balance needs to be struck between rights and freedoms that conflict with one another. Furthermore, the total lack of respect shown by the journalists for the deceased was also appalling and, if left unchecked, would cause the moral degradation of society. Thus regulations to bar the press from carrying out such aggressive and unethical information-gathering activities are not only necessary but desirable as well.

Another human right that can be encroached upon by excessive press freedom would be the right to safety. Media outlets that choose to incite violence can bring about large-scale violence and harm to life and limb. For this reason, many countries have restrictions on such content. For instance, the United States prohibits speech that is designed to incite immediate violence or unlawful activity. In a court decision, an American judge likened such speech to shouting “fire” in a crowded theatre, creating a clear and present danger. In another case, the Court ruled that such speech has no social value and can thus be curtailed. I concur with the reasoning of the American courts and argue that the right of the press to express itself cannot override the right of the individual to safety, and therefore regulation of the media in this regard is to be welcomed. Having said that, one should note that just as no right is absolute, the circumscription of any right may also not hold water under some circumstances. For instance, if a newspaper incites violence to overthrow an egregiously unjust, tyrannical and murderous regime, it may be justifiable for the greater good of the country and of humanity. In prosecuting such a case, it is hoped that an impartial court would take the context and unique moral and legal calculus into due consideration.

Gandhi on the press

Constraints on press freedom can also be warranted by national security considerations, an important facet of the public interest. It is reasonable to sacrifice a limited amount of press freedom in order to ensure national security, which is vital to the very survival of the state – without which no human rights or happiness is even possible. While the First Amendment of the US Constitution states that “Congress shall make no law… abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press”, the Supreme Court has also recognised that in certain situations, the government is allowed to limit the liberty of the press. One of these is when a confidential source violates a federal law in leaking information to the press. In such a case, the reporter can be subpoenaed and be required to name her source. In 2005, New York Times reporter Judith Miller served 85 days in jail for contempt of court when she refused to disclose the source who leaked the identity of undercover Central Intelligence Agency agent Valerie Plame. Except in the most extraordinary of circumstances, for instance if it was crucial to violate federal secrecy laws to protect the survival of the state or to correct a gross injustice against the people, journalists cannot be allowed to undermine national security in the name of press freedom. In recent times, a particularly notable example of the media undermining (or being used to undermine) national security is the alleged Russian manipulation of the US presidential election in 2016 by spreading fake news on Facebook using highly sophisticated programs such as “bots” or autonomous programs designed to behave like humans online. Such disinformation campaigns, if not regulated, can undermine not only national security but even the sovereignty of a state itself.

Certainly however, legitimate concerns are raised by opponents of press regulation that it can be misused by governments to stifle criticism, dissent and even political opposition. Differing views exist as to what the role of the media should be. In western nations, the media is widely recognised as the fourth estate or fourth power, the latter term referring to an unofficial fourth branch of government in addition to the executive, legislative and judiciary. In this paradigm the media act as a public check on the official branches of government. In other countries, however, the role of the media is defined very differently. For instance in Singapore, the founding Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew delineated the media’s function as providing “nation-building journalism”: assisting the government in implementing policies and the general governance of the country. In this school of thought, the press should faithfully inform the masses about the work of the government. I subscribe to the former conception of the media as the fourth power, as it is crucial to have alternative sources of information, in particular by professional journalists or truth-seekers, in order for the people to make wise choices in the exercise of their political choices. For this reason I am sympathetic to the view that press regulation can be used as a tool of oppression or partisan political interests by governments. It is conceivable, for instance, that a government-controlled regulator could fabricate charges and allegations against a newspaper or blog that is critical of it, just to silence it. However, the need for press regulation as outlined earlier is so compelling that it overrides concerns of governmental abuse, the problem of which can be resolved or at least mitigated by having strongly independent regulatory bodies which are not allied to the government or any political party.

 

In conclusion, it is my conviction that it is sensible and wise to have a rules-based system to govern the press, but only to the extent that a judicious balance is struck between competing rights and conflicting aspects of the public interest, and only if the regulation is carried out by a body that is nonpartisan and independent of the government. As with most other issues of society, a delicate balance needs to be struck through a thorough engagement between all stakeholders – taking into account the constant changes in the landscape of media, technology, politics, culture and society. While a vibrant, robust press is vital to a healthy democracy and good governance, we must also hold the fourth estate to account and ensure that it remains a responsible and constructive actor in society.

Copyright 2018 Steven Ooi. All rights reserved. No part of this work is to be reproduced without the written consent of the author.

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Website owner Steven Ooi, a First Class Honours grad from NUS, retired from a distinguished 14-year career as an English and GP tutor in 2016. He continues to blog on issues of concern to GP and student life.

To view tutors recommended by him, click here.

More GP model essays here.

English or General Paper tutors keen to be listed on this website (consistently ranked top 10-15 on Google) as a Recommended Tutor, please email stevenooi18 @ yahoo.com (remove the spaces). Tutors in other subjects interested in having links to their website are also welcome to contact him.

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Hitting back at China’s ‘economic and information warfare’: Steve Bannon explains

Bannon 01

In recent times, the US government led by President Donald Trump has confronted China on the issue of trade with a hostility that is unprecedented in modern times. Accusing China of stealing US technology and unfair trade practices, Trump has imposed tariffs on some US$250 billion worth of Chinese imports, or almost half of all Chinese imports to the US. While it is popular to regard Trump and his former chief strategist Steven Bannon (above) as madmen, there is actually a coherence behind the rationale for the US government’s actions as well as the strategy that they are executing. The two superb articles below from the South China Morning Post (a newspaper that I am increasingly impressed with – and they don’t even have a paywall!) gave me a much better understanding of the Trump administration’s actions and attitude towards China, and even a certain degree of empathy for them. Interestingly, the firebrand Steve Bannon also now strikes me as a deeply intelligent, thoughtful man. As you read these articles, ponder on the struggle between the forces of globalisation and anti-globalisation – is the seemingly inexorable trend of an ever more tightly integrated world about to reverse course?

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Steve Bannon, two Chinese military officers and the book that made him a China hawk

Former White House chief strategist says Unrestricted Warfare opened his eyes to Beijing’s information and economic campaign against the US

South China Morning Post

PUBLISHED : Thursday, 04 October, 2018, 6:03pm
UPDATED : Thursday, 04 October, 2018, 8:23pm

Steve Bannon, US President Donald Trump’s former chief strategist, says it was a book by two Chinese military officers that helped him conclude that “China was engaging in economic warfare against us”.

Bannon, who claims to have been “one of the biggest China hawks” in the president’s circle of advisers even before the trade war Trump started this year, also called Beijing’s “totalitarian political and economic system” the root of the rivalry between the two great powers.

Unrestricted Warfare, a book on military strategy by two senior People’s Liberation Army officers impressed Bannon when he read it in 2010.

Read more here

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Trump won’t back down’: US president plans to make trade war unbearable for China and bigger than ever, Steve Bannon says

In an exclusive interview, the former White House chief strategist says Beijing was caught off guard by the magnitude of the plan he hatched with Trump

South China Morning Post

PUBLISHED : Friday, 21 September, 2018, 6:04 pm
UPDATED : Friday, 21 September, 2018, 11:28 pm

Sasha Gong

1 Oct 2018

US President Donald Trump’s strategy is to make the trade war with China “unprecedentedly large” and “unbearably painful” for Beijing, and he will not back down before victory, former White House chief strategist Steve Bannon said in an exclusive interview.

Bannon said the aim was not just to force China to give up on its “unfair trade practices” – the ultimate goal was to “re-industrialise America” because manufacturing was the core of a nation’s power.

He also took aim at the “Made in China 2025” plan – an attempt by Beijing to catch up with the West in 10 key technology sectors, saying China was using generous government support to reduce its reliance on the West for future technology.

Bannon, who claimed to have helped Trump draw up the trade war plan, said that in the past, tariffs had been limited to imports of between roughly US$10 billion and US$30 billion but the sheer magnitude of the more than US$500 billion in question this time had “caught Beijing off guard”.

Read more here.

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Website owner Steven Ooi, a First Class Honours grad from the National University of Singapore, retired from a distinguished 14-year career as a GP and English tutor in 2016. He continues to blog on issues of concern to General Paper and student life.

To view tutors recommended by him, click here.

GP model essays here.

GP or English tutors (including part-timers) keen to be listed on this website (consistently ranked top 10 on Google) as a Recommended Tutor, please email stevenooi18 @ yahoo.com (remove the spaces). Tutors in other subjects interested in having links to their website are also welcome to contact him.

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Singapore’s National Service obligations need clarity in a global world

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Singapore Armed Forces personnel perform a drill during National Day celebrations on 9 August, 2013. (Reuters file photo)

by Daniel Yap, Yahoo News Singapore

He was born and educated in Thailand, served in the Royal Thai Army and is no longer a Singapore citizen. Yet Ekawit Tangtrakarn, 24, now faces a potential jail term of nine weeks for defaulting on his national service (NS) obligations.
[Update: Ekawit Tangtrakam was fined S$6,000 by the District Court on 18 September 2018]

Ekawit, whose mother is Singaporean and father is Thai, pleaded guilty on Tuesday (28 August) to remaining outside Singapore without a valid exit permit, the typical charge for NS defaulters.

The Thai national’s case follows closely on the revelation that Crazy Rich Asians author Kevin Kwan, who left Singapore at age 11, is “wanted” here for a similar offence.

Read more here.

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Website owner Steven Ooi, a First Class Honours grad from the National University of Singapore, retired from a distinguished 14-year career as a GP and English tutor in 2016. He continues to blog on issues of concern to General Paper and student life.

To view tutors recommended by him, click here.

GP model essays here.

GP or English tutors (including part-timers) keen to be listed on this website (consistently ranked top 10 on Google) as a Recommended Tutor, please email stevenooi18 @ yahoo.com (remove the spaces). Tutors in other subjects interested in having links to their website are also welcome to contact him.

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